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Principle of Autoclave and Sterilizer

Saturated steam sterilization is a commonly used physical means to kill organisms, because high temperature has obvious lethal effect on bacteria. The heat causes the bacteria to denature and coagulate, and the enzyme loses its activity, causing the bacteria to die. Thermal sterilization room is the most reliable, the most mature widely used sterilization method, usually has the wet heat sterilization and the dry heat sterilization two methods.

Microbial widely exists in the environment, some of them are pathogenic microbes, starting from the prevention of infection, medical workers must be strict aseptic operation, the items and work environment of the disinfection sterilization, to ensure the normal medical treatment and scientific research. Sterilization is mainly caused by physical and chemical factors that cause the main metabolic disorders of microorganisms, or the degeneration of bacterial proteins to solidify, or destroy their genetic material, causing microbial death. There are several methods for the physical factor killing microorganisms and the use of related equipment.

High pressure steam sterilizer adopts the method of heat and heat sterilization. At the same temperature, the sterilization effect of hot and humid heat is better than that of dry heat, for the following reasons.

1. The temperature needed to solidify the protein is related to its water content. The larger the water content, the lower the temperature will be. The bacteria in the heat and humidity can absorb the moisture, so it is easier to solidify than the dry hot air at the same temperature.

2. The steam releases a lot of latent heat in the process of hot and humid sterilization, and further raises the temperature. At the same temperature, hot and humid sterilization takes shorter time than dry heat.

3. The penetration of hot and humid gas is stronger than that of dry heat, so the heat of the heat is better than the dry heat. High-pressure steam can kill all microorganisms, even bacterial spores, fungal spores and other high-temperature individuals. The steam temperature of sterilization increases with the increase of steam pressure. By increasing the vapor pressure, the sterilization time can be greatly shortened. So it’s one of the most effective, most widely used methods of sterilization.

High pressure steam sterilizer is a double metal cylinder, water between two layers, the outer hard thick, above it is thick metal cover, cover with screw, so as to cover the door closed, the steam can’t spillover, and the steam pressure, as its temperature is increased accordingly. The steam sterilizer is equipped with exhaust valve and safety piston to adjust the steam pressure. Have thermometers and pressure gauges to indicate internal temperature and pressure. A metal shelf with holes in the sterilizer to place the sterilized object.

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